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Saturday, March 31, 2018

Guide to Uterine Cancer



What Is It?

It’s a cancerous tumor in your uterus, the pear-shaped organ also known as your womb. Most women get it in the lining of the uterus (endometrium), but you can get tumors in the muscles there, too. Almost 50,000 women in the U.S. get this type of cancer each year. If you’re past menopause, your chances are higher.
Early Signs
If you haven’t been through menopause and you have bleeding or spotting -- a red, pink, or white discharge -- between periods, see your doctor. The same is true if you’ve been through menopause and have these same symptoms any time. Bleeding can be a sign of uterine cancer, but it’s also a symptom of a few other medical problems. It can be normal for some women. Your doctor can help you figure out what’s going on.

Other Symptoms

Let your doctor know if you have:
  • Pain in your pelvis (the area between your hips)
  • Lost weight without trying
  • Pain during sex
  • A hard time peeing or it hurts to pee
It’s best if you find uterine cancer before it grows or spreads, so don’t put off your checkups or ignore symptoms.

How It’s Diagnosed

You may have an ultrasound so your doctor can see inside your uterus, and she may send a tiny telescope in through your vagina to get a closer look. But a biopsy is the best way to know if it’s cancer: Your doctor will take a small amount of tissue from the lining and look for cancer cells under a microscope.

Has It spread?

If you have uterine cancer, your doctor will start with one or more of the following to see if it’s spread to nearby organs, like your cervix, or to your lymph nodes (tiny glands in your neck, armpits, and groin):
  • Ultrasound
  • MRI scan, which uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make detailed images of parts of your body
  • CT scan, which takes X-rays from different angles and puts them together to make a more complete picture.

Radiation

Your doctor may recommend this after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may still be there. It may also be an option if surgery isn’t a good idea for you. Your doctor will put tiny radioactive seeds near your tumor or beam radiation at your uterus to kill harmful cells. New types of radiation treatment make a 3-dimensional beam that’s the exact shape of the tumor.

Hormone Therapy

Estrogen and other hormones in your body can make uterine cancer grow or spread faster. New drugs like progestins, tamoxifen, LHRH agonists, and aromatase inhibitors block these hormones to slow the tumor’s growth. This can cause side effects that feel like menopause, including hot flashes, weight gain, or dryness in your vagina.

Targeted Therapy

Some newer drugs use your own cells against the tumor. Antibodies are things your body makes to knock out bugs that make you sick. In targeted therapy, your doctor puts antibodies into your blood to find and destroy the cancer cells. These smart bombs also can carry tiny bits of radiation straight to your tumor to help in the attack.

Clinical Trials

You may be able to be part of a test for new and better drugs to treat uterine cancer. Ask your doctor if there are trials in your area and if one might be right for you.

Your Sex Life

Side effects of uterine cancer treatment can change your sex life. Vaginal dryness or mood changes from hormone therapy may make sex painful or curb your desire. If you’ve had surgery to remove both your ovaries and uterus, you may have the same issues. But lubricants can help with dryness, and some women say their sex lives actually get better after surgery because they have less pain and other symptoms.

Pregnancy

While most women who get uterine cancer are past menopause, younger women can get it, too. If you hope to have children, talk to your doctor about your options, such as storing eggs, before you begin treatment -- surgery, radiation, and hormones can affect your fertility. 

Can You Prevent It?

Get regular women’s health checkups so your doctor can spot any signs of cancer early. Your age, genes, and family history may raise your chance of uterine cancer, but you can do some things to help prevent it, like stay at a healthy weight and get plenty of exercises. And if you have diabetes or high blood pressure, work with your doctor to control it.

Scientists Just Discovered A New Human Organ, And It Could Have Huge Implications For How We Treat Cancer


Scientists Just Discovered A New Human Organ, And It Could Have Huge Implications For How We Treat Cancer.


You would think, after thousands of years of study, we’d have nailed down what was going on inside us. But researchers are arguing that they have accidentally discovered an entirely new organ.
The new structure could even help explain where much of the fluid in our body sits, and may even be the source of lymph, the fluid that is essential to the functioning of our immune system. As such this network, or structure, of fluid-filled channels could be playing a significant role in maintaining our health, as well as propagating disease.
It's not even limited to the obscure parts of us – it is found wrapped around many of our other, more well known, organs. You see, while we thought our lungs, digestive tract, and even our skin were surrounded by tough and dense connective tissue, it turns out that this tissue is in fact riddled with spaces supported through a meshwork of strong connective proteins to prevent them from collapsing, and which freely allow fluid to flow.


This could help explain where so much of our body’s fluid goes. While our cells contain most of the fluid, and the circulatory system carries a whole load more, over a third went unaccounted for and was simply said to be “interstitial”, or just floating around between organs and cells. The researchers claim, in a paper published in Scientific Advances, that the “interstitium” should be defined as an organ in its own right.
They think it may explain why some forms of cancer can spread so rapidly and between unrelated organs. It might also help explain why wrinkles develop, as when you age these channels in the tissue under your skin may fold in on themselves.
It was while conducting routine endoscopies of patients that doctors noticed that the tissue surrounding the bile duct, which should have been fairly solid and dense, was actually covered in an intriguing pattern. When one then decided to take a look using the same device under the skin of his nose, he surprisingly found exactly the same effect.
The key, it seems, was looking at living tissue at such fine magnification. Up until now, medical researchers have relied on fixed tissue microscope slides when studying the human body, say the authors. To do this, they take thin slices of tissue, treat it with chemicals, and dye the structures so that they can be easily identified when placed under a microscope.
The problem, however, is that the fixing drains the tissue of all fluid, and it is expected that this process collapses all the once fluid-filled compartments of the interstitium. Because of this, researchers looking at slides of organs have simply assumed the flattened compartments were tears in the tissue.
It now seems that they will need to do more work to define this structure and convince others that it is an organ in its own right, rather than just a new type of tissue.
“This finding has potential to drive dramatic advances in medicine, including the possibility that the direct sampling of interstitial fluid may become a powerful diagnostic tool," explained co-author Neil Theise.

Russian Scientists Discover Protein Which Causes Cancer Cells to Self-Destruct

The unusual protein, found in the skin cells of human beings and other warm-blooded animals, has a molecular structure similar to that of the toxins of snakes and other reptiles.

Molecular biologists from Moscow State University and the Russian Academy of Sciences have discovered proteins that can help suppress the growth of cancerous tumors. 
The genomes of human beings and other multicellular organisms contain several sets of genes with special 'instructions', calling on their cells to self-destruct when certain conditions are met. Usually, these reactions are triggered not as a result of internal cellular processes, but through contact of cell membranes with specific signal-sending molecules. This allows the immune system to kill 'rebellious' cells which threaten to cause cancerous tumors and clear the organism of weak and old cells.
Dr. Mikhail Shulepko of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of Biochemistry, coauthor of a new study on the subject, explained that special proteins in mammalian skin cells have been found to have a structure similar to that of toxins of snakes and other reptiles. However, unlike their toxic 'cousins', which work to block the transmission of nerve impulses, the mammalian proteins, called SLURPs, act not on the nervous system, but on all cells in general, and speed up or slow down their growth.
The scientists' find prompted them to consider whether such proteins could be used to fight against cancer as a kind of 'stop signal' against the proliferation of cancer cells. They tested this idea by growing skin, breast, lung and rectum cells in a lab and treating them with large quantities of the SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 proteins.
Their research, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, showed that both proteins significantly slowed the growth of nearly all types of cancer, blocking the work of special receptors on the surface of cells which cause them to divide. The biologists found that after a day of such treatment, the number of cancer cells dropped by 40-70% compared to tumor control samples.
Furthermore, the injection of large quantities of SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 proteins into the cellular nutrient medium caused cancerous cells to produce even more of these same molecules, leading to a chain reaction and resulting in the cancer cells to essentially destroy themselves.
"We will continue to study how SLURP works on other cancer models, including cell cultures of primary tumors, as well as human tumors implanted on the bodies of laboratory animals. If these effects are confirmed, it will be possible to consider clinical studies for our proteins," Dr. Shulepko said.
According to the biologists, more work is still required to determine how exactly these proteins cause cancer cells to self-destruct, and what role they play in the work of the body.

Friday, March 16, 2018

Statins are gateway drugs for Big Pharma: Take one and you’ll need four or five more prescriptions for the side effects



One out of every three American adults take statins, and if you think that sounds like good news for statin manufacturers, you’re missing the bigger picture. All of Big Pharmabenefits when people take statins. In fact, statins can really be thought of as gateway drugs. After all, they have so many side effects that you will likely end up taking several other medications after you start statins just to deal with them.
What can happen to you if you take these dangerous drugs? They suppress your body’s immune system, rendering it less able to fight off infections. They also inhibit production of coenzyme Q10, which helps to regulate your immune and nervous system and maintain a healthy heart and blood pressure. There’s also a higher risk of neurological diseases when you take statins, with many patients reporting forgetfulness, confusion and memory loss. But don’t worry – whatever happens to you, Big Pharma has a solution for that, too!

Highly increase risk of diabetes

Statins also increase your risk of diabetes, so much so that the FDA has required that a warning label be placed on the package informing people of the link between statins, higher blood glucose levels and diabetes. The risk is especially heightened if you are an older woman. An Australian study found that elderly women who took high doses of statins had a 50 percent higher risk of developing diabetes. This could mean you’ll end up on diabetes medication for the rest of your life.
And for what benefit are you placing yourself at so much risk? According to research published in BMJ, taking statins over the course of two to five years adds just 3.2 days to a patient’s lifespan on average – if the side effects don’t kill them first. Yes, they’ve been approved by the FDA, but how many times has the FDA had to pull drugs after initially approving them as their dangers became too obvious to ignore?

Statin alternatives

If all this make you want to keep your distance from statins, you will be pleased to know there are some great alternatives. Dr. Jack Wolfson, a Phoenix-area holistic cardiologist, believes that a wellness model needs to be followed rather than a sickness one.
In an interview with Mike Adams, the Health Ranger, he pointed out that cardiologists sometimes fall into the easy routine of blindly prescribing statins as Big Pharma tells them to and collecting a paycheck. After all, they’ve got medical school loans to pay off.
Dr. Wolfson asks why people would want to choose statins, which can reduce the risks associated with high cholesterol slightly yet put them at risk of many other problems, when they could take safe actions that bring their risks down to zero? He said that nobody says they feel better when they take statins and blood pressure medications. In contrast, those who turn to evidence-based supplements often report feeling great, losing weight, and having more energy.

Natural alternatives

Some of the alternatives he mentioned in the interview include beetroot powder, magnesium, and Omega 3. He says that we can make such a big difference in our health through food., and he also points out how powerful the sun can be in keeping us healthy. He also suggests that people get more physical activity, such as walking or gardening.
When your health is less than optimum, Dr. Wolfson says, your body is deficient in nutrients, not pharmaceuticals. Drugs might be good for emergencies, but when it comes to prevention, you can’t beat a healthy, well-rounded and nutritious diet, physical activity, and good old-fashioned sunshine. What do you have to lose by trying it?

Newly Engineered Antibody Can Fight Back Against 99 Percent of HIV Strains

A new study has produced an antibody that's able to kill off 99 percent of HIV strains. The protein is made up of three broadly neutralizing antibodies, and it is said to be more effective than any naturally occurring antibody that's been discovered.

ADVANCED ANTIBODIES

Research carried out by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in conjunction with pharmaceutical firm Sanofi has produced an antibody capable of attacking 99 percent of HIV strains. The International Aids Society has heralded the finding as an “exciting breakthrough.”
The human body has difficulty fighting HIV because of the way that the virus changes and mutates — a single patient can have numerous unique strains of the infection present in their body simultaneously. However, a slim minority of people who suffer from HIV eventually develop a means of battling back in the form of broadly neutralizing antibodies.
These proteins are capable of killing off numerous HIV strains at once, so for this joint study between NIH and Sanofi, researchers set out to find a way to harness this natural defense.


To that end, they combined three unique antibodies to produce a tri-specific antibody. While the most effective naturally occurring antibodies can only target 90 percent of HIV strains, this tri-specific antibody was observed to take on 99 percent. It was even successful at low concentrations. Furthermore, an experiment in which 24 monkeys were administered with the antibodies and then injected with the virus didn’t result in a single infection.
As Sanofi’s Dr. Gary Nabel told the BBC, “[The tri-specific antibodies] are more potent and have greater breadth than any single naturally occurring antibody that’s been discovered.” The next step to putting these powerful antibodies to work is a clinical trial, which is expected to get underway in 2018.

STILL MUCH TO DO

Over the last few decades, we have seen some amazing advances in the fight against HIV. These range from the various treatment methods that are now available to the hugely successful educational campaign that’s been carried out in Africa.

Truly, no stone is being left unturned in the search for better HIV treatments. Scientists in South Africa are investigating the case of a nine-year-old child who was seemingly cured of HIV after receiving antiretroviral therapy. Another study saw researchers look into cows’ ability to produce broadly neutralizing antibodies with the goal of using them to combat the virus.
With any luck, methodology will continue to improve at a fast pace. At the end of 2015, 36.7 million people around the world were living with HIV/AIDS, so clearly a lot more work needs to be done. However, this new research project and others like it could lead to the next level of advancements with regards to the virus.